Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor's Name

Mohammed Farouk

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Co-Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Glenda Musoba

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Co-Chair

Third Advisor's Name

Charmaine DeFrancesco

Fourth Advisor's Name

Richard Lopez


Athletic Training, MLQ, Leadership

Date of Defense



There is currently no evidence describing what characteristics make an Athletic Training Program Director (PD) an effective leader. An influx of accredited programs resulted in a rapid increase in the demand for PDs, yet training and preparation for these positions has failed to evolve. Although Certified Athletic Trainers (ATs) are trained in specific content areas, they may not always be prepared for the administrative and leadership responsibilities associated with the role of PD (Leone, 2008). This dissertation examined the relationships between selected characteristics and leadership outcomes of Athletic Training Program Directors.

Each PD participants (n=27) completed a demographic questionnaire to obtain the leader’s academic preparation, accreditation experience and leadership training history. Each participant also completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) to obtain leadership styles, behaviors, and outcomes. Overall, the PDs reported utilizing transformational leadership most often and passive avoidant leadership least often. There was no significant difference between PDs with master’s and doctorate degrees on overall leadership outcome. However, participants with a doctorate degree scored significantly different on the effectiveness component of the leadership outcome compared with participants with a master’s degree. Those participants who have completed academic coursework on leadership scored significantly different on the leadership outcome compared to those who have not completed academic coursework on leadership.

Findings from this study indicate that changes to the current requirements for the role of PD may be warranted. Consideration should be given to increasing the minimum degree requirement and requiring academic coursework on leadership. Future research may be useful in determining specific degree guidelines and types and amounts of leadership training that would be beneficial to Athletic Training PDs.





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