Document Type



Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor's Name

Robert Lickliter

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

William Kurtines

Third Advisor's Name

Daniel Wright


Longitudinal Enrichment, Temporary Social Isolation, Environmental Interactions, Emotional Reactivity, Cognitive Development, Navigation, Bobwhite Quail

Date of Defense



The impact of the relative richness or poverty of the external environment on development has been demonstrated in a variety of species and for a number of physical and cognitive processes. However, a dichotomy exists in the present literature, wherein the physical and social environments are compartmentalized. The present study investigated the potential longitudinal interaction between the social and physical environments on early cognitive development and emotional reactivity. Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed to different part-time combinations of social and physical enrichment over the first 96 hours following hatch. Developmental trajectories were explored using repeated non-identical maze tasks. The experiment was inconclusive as to the effects of enrichment; however a distinct trend arose as a main effect of age. Chicks were significantly less willing to explore and solve the maze at 72 and 96 hours. Potential explanations concerning experience and physiological maturation are discussed along with sources of variability.





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