Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Dietetics and Nutrition

First Advisor's Name

Fatma G. Huffman

First Advisor's Committee Title

Co-Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Juan Liuzzi, PhD

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Co-Committee Chair

Third Advisor's Name

Vijaya Narayanan

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Tan Li

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member


Advanced Glycation End Products, Type 2 diabetes, soluble receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products, vitamin D, African Americans, Hispanics

Date of Defense



There is a high burden of diabetes and its related complications globally. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) and their receptors have been implicated in complications and mortality related to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Vitamin D deficiency, prevalent in persons with T2D, increases oxidative stress and inflammation that promotes the formation of AGEs.

This study assessed the relationship between sRAGE and AGEs and risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on levels of AGEs and soluble receptor (sRAGE) in adults with hypovitaminosis D. African Americans and Hispanics (n=64) were recruited in Miami and were supplemented with either 4000 IU (n=41) or 6000 IU (n=23) of vitamin D3. AGEs and sRAGE were assessed using commercially available kits (Biotang Inc/TSZ Elisa, Waltham, MA, USA).

Cross-sectional results showed a negative and significant association between AGEs and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (B= −0.551, p= 0.029). The relationship between AGEs and HDL-C remained after adjusting for covariates (p=0.036). sRAGE was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p= 0.029) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p= 0.050). Results lost significance when association between sRAGE and DBP and SBP were adjusted for covariates such as age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol intake and use of medication. AGEs significantly increased at 3 months compared to baseline (p= 0.022). Compared to baseline, the mean level of AGEs decreased at 6 months of supplementation across all groups (Mean Difference= 9.81 ng/ml, p=0.003), 6000 IU group (Mean difference= 9.84 ng/ml, p=0.076) and 4000 IU group (Mean Difference= 9.79 ng/ml, p=0.020). Additionally, the mean serum levels of AGEs were significantly higher at 3 months compared to 6 months among study participants (Mean Difference= 18.71 ng/ml, p

AGEs and sRAGE are related to markers of CVD risk such as HDL-C, SBP and DBP in our study population. Higher serum levels of 25hydroxy vitamin D was associated with high levels of sRAGE. Supplementation of this minority population with vitamin D for six months may delay the accumulation of AGEs and complications of T2D.





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