Document Type



Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor's Name

Nathaniel Cadle

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Asher Z. Milbauer

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Michael Gillespie

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


Normative, Norm, Transgression, Nationalism, Subjectivity, Gender Studies, Nation-State, Disability, Exile, Modernism

Date of Defense



This thesis works to synthesize literary theory into an examination of socio- cultural and political factors of post-World War I Europe, as they appear in Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises and Djuna Barnes’ Nightwood, that led to nationalist movements in the 1930s and the current day. These concepts are divided into three sections with the first being an introduction to the formation of signifiers among the modernist writers. The second involves a differentiation of disability from gender in the expatriate community. The third an investigation of disability among the veteran expatriates. The modernist novel, whilst assisting in the creation of nation-state identities, responds to nationalist and patriarchal determination by forming characters who are outside of the norm.





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