Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor's Name

Maria L. Fernandez

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Mido Chang

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Sneh Gulati

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

M. O. Thirunarayanan

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member


Mathematics Education, Hybrid Learning, Higher Education

Date of Defense



Graduation rates in colleges and universities have not kept up with the increase in enrollment. Lack of mathematics competence is a factor that impairs students from completing higher education studies. This problem is even more pervasive in minority groups. The existing body of research on mathematics education have not favored emerging minority populations in terms of addressing their needs for academic program completion across mode of instruction.

The study analyzed the relationship between type of instruction and the factors underlying students’ attitudes toward mathematics. Further, this study examined the effect of factors underlying the constructs of teacher’s effect and self-efficacy as well as gender and mode of instruction on factors underlying attitudes of students to learn mathematics. Data were collected from a sample of 390 students enrolled in College Algebra delivered in face-to-face and hybrid learning at a minority-serving college, using three well established instruments. A one-way MANOVA and Path Analyses were used to analyze the data.

There were significant differences in the level of importance students attributed to learning mathematics for their life in terms of mode of instruction. Those students who learned mathematics in the hybrid setting believed that learning and mastering mathematics would become an advantageous factor for their life.

Beliefs of encouragement from the teacher and mathematics capability to solve procedural problems predicted judgments of satisfaction for being enrolled in College Algebra, as well as judgments of the importance students attributed to learning mathematics for their life. Mode of instruction was also a significant predictor of importance. Mathematics apprehension was significantly predicted by discouragement. Perceptions with respect to performing mathematics problems that required applying several procedures was significantly predicted by the combined effect of judgments of encouragement and discouragement from the teacher. Perceptions of being encouraged from the teacher predicted beliefs to perform critical thinking problems in mathematics.





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