Document Type



Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Business Administration

First Advisor's Name

Karen Paul

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee chair

Second Advisor's Name

Modesto A. Maidique

Second Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Ochieng F. Walumbwa

Third Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

George S. Dulikravich

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fifth Advisor's Name

Mido Chang

Fifth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Sixth Advisor's Name

Gregory Lee

Sixth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member


Cultural Distance Index, Cultural Distance, Friction Model, International Expansion

Date of Defense



In response to a call for more advanced and more inclusive models for measuring difficulty of international expansion, the resistance index (RI) was created and is advanced in this paper. The RI includes several factors that contribute (detract) to the success (failure) of firms regarding cross border expansion. The RI features variables that represent country specific advantages (CSA), firm specific advantages (FSA), and government specific advantages (GSA). These three areas are represented by a diverse set of data obtained from such widely recognized agencies as the World Bank and Thomson Reuters. Taking data from different sources, may render better predictability for firms than using the popular cultural distance index. Therefore, it is proposed that the RI may be a more relevant tool for firms to use when they are considering international expansion into a particular country, or for researchers to employ in undertaking success or failure in international expansion.





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