Document Type



Educational Leadership

First Advisor's Name

Douglas H. Smith

First Advisor's Committee Title

Co-Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Thomas G. Reio Jr.

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Co-Committee Chair

Third Advisor's Name

Tonette S. Rocco

Fourth Advisor's Name

M. O. Thirunarayanan


Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Model, evaluation, job performance, organizational impact, adult education, human resource development, hotel, hospitality industry

Date of Defense



This study examined Kirkpatrick’s training evaluation model (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006) by assessing a sales training program conducted at an organization in the hospitality industry. The study assessed the employees’ training outcomes of knowledge and skills, job performance, and the impact of the training upon the organization. By assessing these training outcomes and their relationships, the study demonstrated whether Kirkpatrick’s theories are supported and the lower evaluation levels can be used to predict organizational impact. The population for this study was a group of reservations sales agents from a leading luxury hotel chain’s reservations center. During the study period from January 2005 to May 2007, there were 335 reservations sales agents employed in this Global Reservations Center (GRC). The number of reservations sales agents who had completed a sales training program/intervention during this period and had data available for at least two months pre and post training composed the sample for this study. The number of agents was 69 (N = 69). Four hypotheses were tested through paired-samples t tests, correlation, and hierarchical regression analytic procedures. Results from the analyses supported the hypotheses in this study. The significant improvement in the call score supported hypothesis one that the reservations sales agents who completed the training improved their knowledge of content and required skills in handling calls (Level 2). Hypothesis two was accepted in part as there was significant improvement in call conversion, but there was no significant improvement of time usage. The significant improvement in the sales per call supported hypothesis three that the reservations agents who completed the training contributed to increased organizational impact (Level 4), i.e., made significantly more sales. Last, findings supported hypothesis four that Level 2 and Level 3 variables can be used for predicting Level 4 organizational impact. The findings supported the theory of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model that in order to expect organizational results, a positive change in behavior (job performance) and learning must occur. The examinations of Levels 2 and 3 helped to partially explain and predict Level 4 results.





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