Implementation of X-ray diffraction in the measurement of residual thermal strains

Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor's Name

W. Kinzy Jones

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

K. H. Wu

Third Advisor's Name

N. Munroe

Fourth Advisor's Name

S. Mergui

Date of Defense



Microelectronic systems are multi-material, multi-layer structures, fabricated and exposed to environmental stresses over a wide range of temperatures. Thermal and residual stresses created by thermal mismatches in films and interconnections are a major cause of failure in microelectronic devices. Due to new device materials, increasing die size and the introduction of new materials for enhanced thermal management, differences in thermal expansions of various packaging materials have become exceedingly important and can no longer be neglected.

X-ray diffraction is an analytical method using a monochromatic characteristic X-ray beam to characterize the crystal structure of various materials, by measuring the distances between planes in atomic crystalline lattice structures. As a material is strained, this interplanar spacing is correspondingly altered, and this microscopic strain is used to determine the macroscopic strain.

This thesis investigates and describes the theory and implementation of X-ray diffraction in the measurement of residual thermal strains. The design of a computer controlled stress attachment stage fully compatible with an Anton Paar heat stage will be detailed. The stress determined by the diffraction method will be compared with bimetallic strip theory and finite element models.



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