Document Type



Public Health

First Advisor's Name

Theophile Niyonsenga

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Mary Jo Trepka

Third Advisor's Name

David J. Lee

Fourth Advisor's Name

Jai Parkash


glycemic control, diabetes, NHANES, risk factors, work, quality of life, mortality

Date of Defense



Despite research showing the benefits of glycemic control, it remains suboptimal among adults with diabetes in the United States. Possible reasons include unaddressed risk factors as well as lack of awareness of its immediate and long term consequences. The objectives of this study were to, using cross-sectional data, 1) ascertain the association between suboptimal (Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥7%), borderline (HbA1c 7-8.9%), and poor (HbA1c ≥9%) glycemic control and potentially new risk factors (e.g. work characteristics), and 2) assess whether aspects of poor health and well-being such as poor health related quality of life (HRQOL), unemployment, and missed-work are associated with glycemic control; and 3) using prospective data, assess the relationship between mortality risk and glycemic control in US adults with type 2 diabetes. Data from the 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used. HbA1c values were used to create dichotomous glycemic control indicators. Binary logistic regression models were used to assess relationships between risk factors, employment status and glycemic control. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess relationships between glycemic control and HRQOL variables. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to assess relationships between missed work days and glycemic control. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to assess effects of glycemic control on mortality risk. Using STATA software, analyses were weighted to account for complex survey design and non-response. Multivariable models adjusted for socio-demographics, body mass index, among other variables. Results revealed that being a farm worker and working over 40 hours/week were risk factors for suboptimal glycemic control. Having greater days of poor mental was associated with suboptimal, borderline, and poor glycemic control. Having greater days of inactivity was associated with poor glycemic control while having greater days of poor physical health was associated with borderline glycemic control. There were no statistically significant relationships between glycemic control, self-reported general health, employment, and missed work. Finally, having an HbA1c value less than 6.5% was protective against mortality. The findings suggest that work-related factors are important in a person’s ability to reach optimal diabetes management levels. Poor glycemic control appears to have significant detrimental effects on HRQOL.



Included in

Epidemiology Commons



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