Document Type



Doctor of Education (EdD)


Curriculum and Instruction

First Advisor's Name

Lynne D. Miller

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Kingsley Banya

Third Advisor's Name

George E. O'Brien

Date of Defense



This study examines the effects of looping (staying with the same teacher for two grade levels) on the reading achievement of fourth graders within a large, urban, multicultural school. Looping was expected to have a positive effect on reading achievement and reading qualities. Additional benefits, such as its effect on anxiety levels and self-concept were also assumed to accrue from looping.

A causal-comparative design was employed. Four existing classrooms consisting of eighty-one fourth grade students comprised the treatment and comparison groups. The two "looping" treatment groups consisted of students who had the same teacher for their third and fourth grade school years. The remaining two classes comprised the comparison groups. Pre- and post-tests for reading achievement total scores and subscores for main idea and comparisons were obtained using the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Assessments were also obtained from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, modified to reflect reading, and the Self- Perception Profile for Children. The difference in pre- and post-test FCAT scores were analyzed via a four group simple ANOVA to examine the effects of the looping model on reading achievement and reading qualities. Similar simple ANOVAs were performed to investigate the relationship of looping to anxiety and self-concept.

The findings led to the conclusion that looping was significantly related to improvement in reading achievement and reading qualities. In addition, the hypothesized relationship of lower anxiety in the looping group compared to the comparison group was supported. There were no significant effects on self-concept for any of the comparisons.

The study clearly demonstrated the positive effects of looping, on total reading achievement scores, on reading qualities of fourth grade students who participated in looping classes and on differences in students' anxiety. Looping did not have an effect on general self-concept.

The results demonstrate the effects of looping on teaching methods. In looping practice teachers have the advantage of knowing their students and the students' readiness and can make adaptations of teaching methods accordingly. From the students' perspective, the looped students do not have to adapt to a new teacher and thus, experience lower anxiety.




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