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Modern phased arrays require large instantaneous bandwidths, wide fields of view, and low profiles to conduct multiple functions. Many of these phased arrays rely on emerging high speed ADCs and advanced balanced transceivers. The benefits of balanced front-ends include improved linearity, dynamic range, isolation, and noise resilience. The application of a differential phased array in such a system removes extraneous losses caused by baluns, though the issue of feed-borne E-plane scan resonances must be considered. We address the E-plane scan resonance issue through an improved Balanced Wideband Impedance Transformer (BWIT) feed for the ultra-wideband (UWB) Tightly Coupled Dipole Array (TCDA). This BWIT feed has already demonstrated mitigated common-modes over a 3:1 bandwidth ratio while scanning to low angles. Here, our differential TCDA (D-TCDA) is developed for the L-C band (viz. 1.0 GHz to 6.1 GHz) with emphasis on resonance-free wide-angle scanning. Rigorous EM model and circuit analysis is included to verify the BWIT performance. Under a VSWR < 3 definition, the improved array achieves a 6:1 impedance bandwidth ratio (BWR) with resonance-free scanning in all planes. An exception is the H-plane scanning at 60◦ where the VSWR < 4. Array simulations are verified with measurements for an 8×8 single-polarized prototype.
Johnson, Alexander D.; Manohar, Vignesh; Venkatakrishnan, Satheesh Bojja; and Volakis, John L., "Optimized differential TCDA (D-TCDA) with novel differential feed structure" (2021). Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications. 86.