Novel approaches for the synthesis of C-5 modified pyrimidine nucleosides

Yong Liang, Florida International University


The antiviral or anticancer activities of C-5 modified pyrimidine nucleoside analogues validate the need for the development of their syntheses. In the first half of this dissertation, I explore the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of allylphenylgermanes with aryl halides in the presence of SbF 5/TBAF to give various biaryls by transferring multiple phenyl groups, which has also been applied to the 5-halo pyrimidine nucleosides for the synthesis of 5-aryl derivatives. To avoid the use of organometallic reagents, I developed Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of 5-halo pyrimidine nucleosides. It was discovered that 5-aryl pyrimidine nucleosides could be synthesized by Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of N3-free 5-halo uracil and uracil nucleosides with simple arenes or heteroaromatics in the presence of TBAF within 1 h. Both N3-protected and N3-free uracil and uracil nucleosides could undergo base-promoted Pd-catalyzed direct arylation, but only with electron rich heteroaromatics. In the second half of this dissertation, 5-acetylenic uracil and uracil nucleosides have been employed to investigate the hydrogermylation, hydrosulfonylation as well as hydroazidation for the synthesis of various functionalized 5-vinyl pyrimidine nucleosides. Hydrogermylation of 5-alkynyl uracil analogues with trialkylgermane or tris(trimethylsilyl)germane hydride gave the corresponding vinyl trialkylgermane, or tris(trimethylsilyl)germane uracil derivatives. During the hydrogermylation with triphenylgermane, besides the vinyl triphenylgermane uracil derivatives, 5-[2-(triphenylgermyl)acetyl]uracil was also isolated and characterized and the origin of the acetyl oxygen was clarified. Tris(trimethylsilyl)germane uracil derivatives were coupled to aryl halides but with decent yield. Iron-mediated regio- and stereoselective hydrosulfonylation of the 5-ethynyl pyrimidine analogues with sulfonyl chloride or sulfonyl hydrazine to give 5-(1-halo-2-tosyl)vinyluracil nucleoside derivatives has been developed. Nucleophilic substitution of the 5-(β-halovinyl)sulfonyl nucleosides with various nucleophiles have been performed to give highly functionalized 5-vinyl pyrimidine nucleosides via the addition-elimination mechanism. The 5-(β-keto)sulfonyluracil derivative has also been synthesized via the aerobic difunctionalization of 5-ethynyluracil analogue with sulfinic acid in the presence of catalytic amount of pyridine. Silver catalyzed hydroazidation of protected 2'-deoxy-5-ethynyluridine with TMSN3 in the presence of catalytic amount of water to give 5-(α-azidovinyl)uracil nucleoside derivatives was developed. Strain promoted Click reaction of the 5-(α-azidovinyl)uracil with cyclooctyne provide the corresponding fully conjugated triazole product.

Subject Area

Organic chemistry

Recommended Citation

Liang, Yong, "Novel approaches for the synthesis of C-5 modified pyrimidine nucleosides" (2014). ProQuest ETD Collection for FIU. AAI3705080.