Stereoselective synthesis of vinyl germanes and silanes. Applications of tris(trimethyl)germanes and silanes in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions
Although group 14 organometallic compounds (Si, Sn) have been well developed as transmetallation reagents in cross-coupling reactions, the application of organogermanium compounds as cross-coupling reagents is still a relatively new area with few papers published. This study aimed to develop methods for the synthesis of new classes of vinyl germane and vinyl silane compounds, mainly Z and E tris(trimethylsilyl)germanes and silanes, which were then applied to Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl and alkenyl halides. The stereoselective radical-mediated desulfonylation of vinyl sulfones with tris(trimethyl)germanium or silane hydrides provided access to the synthesis of trans vinyl germanes or silanes. Alternatively hydrogermylation or hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes gave cis vinyl germanes or silanes. The application of these new classes of organometallic compounds in cross-coupling reactions with various aryl and alkenyl halides under aqueous [NaOH/H2O2/Pd(PPh 3)4] and anhydrous [KH/t-BuOOH/Pd(PPh 3)4] oxidative conditions were investigated. It was found that the vinyl tris(trimethylsilyl)germanes successfully underwent Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl and alkenyl halides and aryl triflates under aqueous and anhydrous oxidative conditions. These procedures provided examples of "ligand-free" Pd-catalyzed coupling of organogermanes with aryl and alkenyl halides. Interestingly, couplings with fluorinated vinyl germanes appeared to occur more easily than with the corresponding (α-fluoro)vinyl stannanes and silanes since neither addition of an extra ligand nor activation with fluoride was necessary. The vinyl tris(trimethyl)silanes were found to be alternative substrates for the Hiyama reaction. The coupling of TTMS-silanes with various aryl, heteroaryl as well as alkenyl halides proceeded smoothly upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sodium hydroxide and fluoride ion.
Wang, Zhizhong, "Stereoselective synthesis of vinyl germanes and silanes. Applications of tris(trimethyl)germanes and silanes in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions" (2005). ProQuest ETD Collection for FIU. AAI3206057.