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Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between a marker of dietary intake, the carbohydrate-to-fiber (CF) ratio, and moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database from 2013-2016. Participants: Individuals 18 years and older were included. Participants with total energy intake outside of three standard deviations of the mean, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and those with missing data were excluded. Measurements: The main independent variable, CF ratio, was generated using corresponding variables in NHANES and divided into quartiles. The main outcome was depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Among all participants (n=9,728), 8.3% reported to have moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (n=833). The highest proportion of depressive symptoms was reported in respondents in quartile 4 (Q4), with the highest CF ratio (13.0%; p<0.001). After adjustment, the odds of depressive symptoms significantly increased in Q4 of the CF ratio compared with Q1 (adjusted odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9). The prevalence of depressive symptoms significantly increased in females, lower federal poverty levels, non-married individuals, smokers, and hypertension patients. Conclusion: This nationally representative sample suggests that a higher CF dietary intake ratio increases the risk of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. These results suggest that the CF ratio may help clinicians and patients evaluate their dietary risk for depressive symptoms. Further prospective studies are needed to validate this ratio as a dietary measurement.
Makhani, Sarah S.; Davies, Camron; George, Kevin A.; Castro, Grettel; Rodriguez de la Vega, Pura; and Barengo, Noel C., "Carbohydrate-to-Fiber Ratio, a Marker of Dietary Intake, as an Indicator of Depressive Symptoms" (2021). HWCOM Faculty Publications. 227.
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