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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by heterogeneous behaviors and symptoms, developmental trajectories, and treatment response. Isolating intermediate phenotypes that are superior to current DSM-based nosology in order to explain such heterogeneity is integral to enhancing etiological theory, improving clinical assessment, predicting treatment response, and developing tailored treatments. To this end, this review provides an integrated developmental psychopathology and National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach to ADHD. In particular, associations between ADHD and RDoC domains of cognition (specifically working memory) and positive valence (reward anticipation/delay/receipt) are discussed. These domains are examined across behavioral and neurocircuitry levels of analysis and placed within a developmental context via examining associations among RDoC domains, relevant features of ADHD, and environmental correlates implicated across development. Limitations of the existing literature and proposed future directions are explored. Importantly, future work should focus on novel approaches that account for developmental shifts in functioning of relevant RDoC domains over time, as well as further examination of the interaction across RDoC domains and levels of analysis.


Originally published in Comprehensive Psychiatry.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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