Racial Disparities in Acromegaly and Cushing's Disease: A Referral Center Study in 241 Patients
Date of this Version
Context: Acromegaly (ACM) and Cushing's disease (CD) are caused by functioning pituitary adenomas secreting growth hormone and ACTH respectively. Objective: To determine the impact of race on presentation and postoperative outcomes in adults with ACM and CD, which has not yet been evaluated. Methods: This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients operated at a large-volume pituitary center. We evaluated (1) racial distribution of patients residing in the metropolitan area (Metro, N=124) vs 2010 US census data, and(2) presentation and postoperative outcomes in Black vs White for patients from the entire catchment area (N=241). Results: For Metro area (32.4% Black population), Black patients represented 16.75% ACM (P=.006) and 29.2% CD (P=.56). Among the total 112 patients with ACM, presentations with headaches or incidentaloma were more common in Black patients (76.9% vs 31% White, P=.01). Black patients had a higher prevalence of diabetes (54% vs 16% White, P=.005), significantly lower interferon insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 deviation from normal (P=.03) and borderline lower median growth hormone levels (P=.09). Mean tumor diameter and proportion of tumors with cavernous sinus invasion were similar. Three-month biochemical remission (46% Black, 55% White, P=.76) and long-term IGF-1 control by multimodality therapy (92.3% Black, 80.5% White, P=.45) were similar. Among the total 129 patients with CD, Black patients had more hypopituitarism (69% vs 45% White, P=.04) and macroadenomas (33% vs 15% White, P=.05). At 3 months, remission rate was borderline higher in White (92% vs 78% Black, P=0.08), which was attributed to macroadenomas by logistic regression. Conclusion: We identified disparities regarding racial distribution, and clinical and biochemical characteristics in ACM, suggesting late or missed diagnosis in Black patients. Large nationwide studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
Ioachimescu, Adriana G.; Goswami, Neevedita; Handa, Talin; Pappy, Adlai; Veledar, Emir; and Oyesiku, Nelson M., "Racial Disparities in Acromegaly and Cushing's Disease: A Referral Center Study in 241 Patients" (2022). Department of Biostatistics Faculty Publications. 63.