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A key challenge in the analysis of longitudinal microbiome data is the inference of temporal interactions between microbial taxa, their genes, the metabolites that they consume and produce, and host genes. To address these challenges, we developed a computational pipeline, a pipeline for the analysis of longitudinal multi-omics data (PALM), that first aligns multi-omics data and then uses dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) to reconstruct a unified model. Our approach overcomes differences in sampling and progression rates, utilizes a biologically inspired multiomic framework, reduces the large number of entities and parameters in the DBNs, and validates the learned network. Applying PALM to data collected from inflammatory bowel disease patients, we show that it accurately identifies known and novel interactions. Targeted experimental validations further support a number of the predicted novel metabolite-taxon interactions.