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The spread of altered media in the form of fake videos, audios, and images, has been largely increased over the past few years. Advanced digital manipulation tools and techniques make it easier to generate fake content and post it on social media. In addition, tweets with deep fake content make their way to social platforms. The polarity of such tweets is significant to determine the sentiment of people about deep fakes. This paper presents a deep learning model to predict the polarity of deep fake tweets. For this purpose, a stacked bi-directional long short-term memory (SBi-LSTM) network is proposed to classify the sentiment of deep fake tweets. Several well-known machine learning classifiers are investigated as well such as support vector machine, logistic regression, Gaussian Naive Bayes, extra tree classifier, and AdaBoost classifier. These classifiers are utilized with term frequency-inverse document frequency and a bag of words feature extraction approaches. Besides, the performance of deep learning models is analyzed including long short-term memory network, gated recurrent unit, bi-direction LSTM, and convolutional neural network+LSTM. Experimental results indicate that the proposed SBi-LSTM outperforms both machine and deep learning models and achieves an accuracy of 0.92.
Rupapara, Vaibhav; Rustam, Furqan; Amaar, Aashir; Washington, Patrick Bernard; Lee, Ernesto; and Ashraf, Imran, "Deepfake tweets classification using stacked Bi-LSTM and words embedding" (2021). All Faculty. 458.