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Using nanoparticle-based RNA interference (RNAi), we have previously shown that silenc-ing the host autophagic protein, Beclin1, in HIV-infected human microglia and astrocytes restricts HIV replication and its viral-associated inflammatory responses. Here, we confirmed the efficacy of Beclin1 small interfering RNA (siBeclin1) as an adjunctive antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy in myeloid human microglia and primary human astrocytes infected with HIV, both with and without exposure to combined antiretroviral (cART) drugs. To specifically target human microglia and human astrocytes, we used a nanoparticle (NP) comprised of linear cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) conjugated with mannose (Man) and encapsulated with siBeclin1. The target specificity of the PEI-Man NP was confirmed in vitro using human neuronal and glial cells transfected with the NP encapsulated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). PEI-Man-siBeclin1 NPs were intranasally deliv-ered to healthy C57BL/6 mice in order to report the biodistribution of siBeclin1 in different areas of the brain, measured using stem-loop RT-PCR. Postmortem brains recovered at 1–48 h post-treatment with the PEI-Man-siRNA NP showed no significant changes in the secretion of the chemokines regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and showed significant decreases in the secretion of the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) when compared to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated brains. Nissl staining showed minimal differences between the neuronal structures when compared to PBS-treated brains, which correlated with no adverse behavioral affects. To confirm the brain and peripheral organ distribution of PEI-siBeclin1 in living mice, we used the In vivo Imaging System (IVIS) and demonstrated a significant brain accumulation of siBeclin1 through intranasal administration.