Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected steroid hormone residues in commercial raw milk followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry
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Hormones in edible matrices, such as milk, are a subject of concern because of their adverse effects on the endocrine system and cell signaling and the consequent disruption of homeostasis in human consumers. Therefore, the assessment of the presence of hormones in milk as potential endocrine-disrupting compounds is warranted. However, the complexity of milk as a sample matrix and the ultra-low concentration of hormones pose significant analytical challenges. Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) has emerged as a powerful analytical technique for the extraction of emerging pollutants from complex aqueous matrices. FPSE allows for substantially simplified sample handling and short extraction and desorption times, as well as the decreased use of organic solvents. It is considered a green alternative to traditional extraction methodologies. In this work, the FPSE technique was evaluated to perform the simultaneous extraction of 15 steroid hormones from raw milk without employing any sample pretreatment steps. Clean and preconcentrated hormone solutions obtained from FPSE of raw milk were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to achieve low detection limits, which ranged from 0.047 to 1.242 ng·mL−1. Because of the presence of many interferents in milk, such as proteins, lipids, and sugar, the effect of fat content on the extraction procedure was also thoroughly studied. Additionally, for the first time, the effect of lactose on the extraction of steroid hormones was evaluated, and the results showed that the extraction efficiencies were enhanced in lactose-free samples. Finally, the optimized methodology was applied to commercial samples of cow and goat milk, and no measurable concentrations of the studied hormones were detected in these samples.
Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José J.; Kabir, Abuzar; and Furton, Kenneth G., "Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected steroid hormone residues in commercial raw milk followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry" (2021). All Faculty. 440.