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A sol-gel thiocyanatopropyl-functionalized silica sorbent was synthesized and employed for an automated on-line microcolumn preconcentration platform as a front-end to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Hg(II), and V(II). The developed system is based on an easy-to-repack microcolumn construction integrated into a flow injection manifold coupled directly to ICP-AES’s nebulizer. After on-line extraction/preconcentration of the target analyte onto the surface of the sorbent, successive elution with 1.0 mol L−1 HNO3 was performed. All main chemical and hydrodynamic factors affecting the effectiveness of the system were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, for 60 s preconcentration time, the enhancement factor achieved for the target analytes was between 31 to 53. The limits of detection varied in the range of 0.05 to 0.24 μg L−1, while the limits of quantification ranged from 0.17 to 0.79 μg L−1. The precision of the method was expressed in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD%) and was less than 7.9%. Furthermore, good method accuracy was observed by analyzing three certified reference materials. The proposed method was also successfully employed for the analysis of environmental water samples.