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The marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) is a triploid and parthenogenetic freshwater crayfish species that has colonized diverse habitats around the world. Previous studies suggested that the clonal marbled crayfish population descended as recently as 25 years ago from a single specimen of P. fallax, the sexually reproducing parent species. However, the genetic, phylogeographic, and mechanistic origins of the species have remained enigmatic. We have now constructed a new genome assembly for P. virginalis to support a detailed phylogeographic analysis of the diploid parent species, Procambarus fallax. Our results strongly suggest that both parental haplotypes of P. virginalis were inherited from the Everglades subpopulation of P. fallax. Comprehensive whole-genome sequencing also detected triploid specimens in the same subpopulation, which either represent evolutionarily important intermediate genotypes or independent parthenogenetic lineages arising among the sexual parent population. Our findings thus clarify the geographic origin of the marbled crayfish and identify potential mechanisms of parthenogenetic speciation.
Gutekunst, Julian; Maiakovska, Olena; Hanna, Katharina; Provataris, Panagiotis; Horn, Hannes; Wolf, Stephan; Skelton, Christopher E.; Dorn, Nathan J.; and Lyko, Frank, "Phylogeographic reconstruction of the marbled crayfish origin" (2021). All Faculty. 259.