Document Type



Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Studies

First Advisor's Name

Mahadev Bhat

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Krishnaswamy Jayachandran

Third Advisor's Name

Raymond Scattone


Sanitation, Sustainability index, public health, water quality, environment, Tanzania

Date of Defense



The objectives of this study were to: assess the sanitation conditions and sustainability of sanitation technologies, using a comprehensive framework of sustainability indicators. A survey of 500 households and focus group discussions of 40 key informants were conducted in five villages. Ninety-six percent of the households had toilets, with only 9.4% having improved toilets. A strong relationship existed between the percent of sanitation coverage and the diarrhea incidence rates. Education and family wealth were the two significant determinants of sanitation coverage. On the basis of the sustainable development index, SanPlat and VIP latrine were the top two probable sustainable technologies. Variation did exist in the rankings of sanitation technologies across the study villages. Improvement in sanitation in rural Tanzania requires education of people about its health benefits, proper training, and extension of rural health workers