Document Type



Forensic Science

First Advisor's Name

DeEtta K. Mills

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

DeEtta K. Mills

Third Advisor's Name

Bruce R. McCord

Fourth Advisor's Name

Rene J. Herrera


Lingayat, Vokkaliga, Dravidian language, Y-chromosome, Y-SNP, Y-STR, diversity, phylogenetic analyses, southern India.

Date of Defense



Archaeological and genetic evidence have long supported the notion that the Indian subcontinent played an important role in the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa. In the present study, two Dravidian populations, namely Lingayat (N=101) and Vokkaliga (N=102) were examined using high-resolution analyses of Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) and their associated seventeen short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The results revealed a prevalence of the major indigenous Indian Y-haplogroups (H, L, F* and R2), which collectively accounted for three-fourths of the Lingayat and Vokkaliga paternal gene pool. In addition, the presence of ancient lineages such as F*-M213, H*-M69 and C*-M216 suggested that modern humans reached India very early after their migration out of Africa. Finally, high haplotype diversity values at 17 Y-STR loci for Lingayat (0.9981) and Vokkaliga (0.9901) populations as well as the absence of shared haplotypes between them emphasized the importance of independent databases for forensic casework.