Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Chemistry

First Advisor's Name

Stanislaw F. Wnuk

First Advisor's Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Kevin O'Shea

Third Advisor's Name

J. Martin Quirke

Fourth Advisor's Name

Piero Gardinali

Fifth Advisor's Name

Rene Herrera

Keywords

Thiodesulfonylation, germyldesulfonylation, (α-fluoro)vinyl sulfones, (α-fluoro)vinyl sulfides.

Date of Defense

7-19-2010

Abstract

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase effects hydrolytic cleavage of AdoHcy to produce both adenosine and L-homocysteine and is a feedback inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). Nucleoside analogues bearing an alkenyl or fluoroalkenyl chain between sulfur and C5′ utilizing Negishi coupling reactions were synthesized. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling between the 5′-deoxy-5′-(iodomethylene) nucleosides and alkylzinc bromides gives analogues with the alkenyl unit. Palladium-catalyzed selective monoalkylation of 5′-(bromofluoromethylene)-5′-deoxy-adenosine with alkylzinc bromide afford adenosylhomocysteine analogues with a 6′-(fluoro)vinyl motif. The vinylic adenine nucleosides produced time-dependent inactivation of the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases.

Stannydesulfonylation reaction is a critical step in the synthesis of E-fluorovinyl cytidine (Tezacitabine) a ribonucleoside reductase inhibitor with a potent anticancer activity. The synthesis involves the removal of the sulfonyl group by a radical-mediated stannyldesulfonylation reaction using tributyltin hydride. In order to eliminate the toxicity of tin, I developed a radical-mediated germyldesulonylation utilizing less toxic germane hydrides. Treatment of the protected (E)-5'-deoxy-5'-[(p-toluenesulfonyl)-methylene]uridine and adenosine derivatives with tributyl- or triphenylgermane hydride effected radical-mediated germyldesulfonylations to give 5'-(tributyl- or triphenylgermyl)methylene-5'-deoxynucleoside derivatives as single (E)-isomers. Analogous treatment of 2'-deoxy-2'-[(phenylsulfonyl)methylene]uridine with Ph3GeH afforded the corresponding vinyl triphenylgermane product. Stereoselective halodegermylation of the (E)-5'-(tributylgermyl)-methylene-5'-deoxy nucleosides with NIS or NBS provided the Wittig-type (E)-5'-deoxy-5'-(halomethylene) nucleosides quantitatively.

Radical-mediated thiodesulfonylation of the readily available vinyl and (α-fluoro) vinyl sulfones with aryl thiols in organic or aqueous medium to provide a bench and environmentally friendly protocol to access (α-fluoro)vinyl sulfides were developed. Methylation of the vinyl or (α-fluoro)vinyl phenyl sulfide gave access to the corresponding vinyl or (α-fluoro)vinyl sulfonium salts. These sulfonium ions were tested as possible methyl group donors during reactions with thiols, phenols or amino groups which are commonly present in natural amino acids.