Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Biology

First Advisor's Name

James W Fourqurean

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Craig A Layman

Second Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Third Advisor's Name

Jennifer Rehage

Third Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Kenneth Feeley

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

committee member

Fifth Advisor's Name

Deron Burkepile

Fifth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee member

Keywords

species distribution, bioindicator, amphipod, epiphytes, seagrass, Florida Bay, habitat fragmentation, disturbance, plant-herbivore interactions, stoichiometry

Date of Defense

6-28-2016

Abstract

Anthropogenic disturbances are ubiquitous in coastal marine ecosystems. As such, more intensive monitoring efforts are necessary to conserve these valuable habitats. Bioindicators, organisms that predictably respond to changes in environmental variables, may be utilized in monitoring efforts to assess ecosystem functioning. To incorporate organisms into monitoring programs as bioindicators managers need to first understand the difference between the natural phenology of the focal organisms and their responses to different forms of anthropogenic disturbance.

To determine if gammaridean amphipods could be used as indicators of changes in environmental quality in sub-tropical seagrass ecosystems, I conducted spatial and temporal surveys of amphipod communities in south Florida. Amphipod community structure varied significantly across sites and seasons. Variation in community structure was largely driven by macrophyte biomass, food availability, seasonally variable factors (epiphyte abundance, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature), water-column nitrogen concentration, and factors related to freshwater input, including low Thalassia testudinum and high Halodule wrightii densities, and salinity.

Amphipods are also susceptible to mechanical damage in seagrass habitats and could be used as indicators of ecological functioning of a region. A major source of mechanical damage in seagrass ecosystems is caused by boat propellers. I simulated propeller scars in continuous seagrass beds to investigate the effects of scarring on seagrass ecosystem functioning. Seagrasses located adjacent to propeller scars experienced a shift in the limiting resource from light to phosphorus. Amphipod community structure, however, was not impacted by scarring, but amphipod density was reduced in fragmented patches. To determine if plant-herbivore interactions were impacted by propeller scarring, we removed amphipods from half of the experimental plots and measured epiphyte biomass and community composition. Top-down control on epiphyte biomass or community composition by amphipods was not affected by fragmentation, despite reduced amphipod densities.

My dissertation research demonstrates that amphipods could be incorporated into existing management programs in sub-tropical seagrass ecosystems as environmental indicators. Reduced amphipod densities in fragmented seagrass beds suggests that amphipods could also be used as ecological indicators, but more research is needed to determine the extent of the impacts of fragmentation on higher trophic levels.

Identifier

FIDC000721

Available for download on Saturday, July 21, 2018

Included in

Biology Commons

Share

COinS
 

Rights Statement

Rights Statement

In Copyright. URI: http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. You are free to use this Item in any way that is permitted by the copyright and related rights legislation that applies to your use. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).