Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Dietetics and Nutrition

First Advisor's Name

Fatma G. Huffman, Ph.D., R.D.

First Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Chair

Second Advisor's Name

Zisca Dixon, Ph.D., R.D.

Second Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Third Advisor's Name

Marianna Baum, Ph.D., R.D.

Third Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Fourth Advisor's Name

Paulette Johnson, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor's Committee Title

Committee Member

Keywords

oxidative stress, MnSOD, 8OHdG, dietary antioxidants, African Americans, Haitian Americans, A1C, FPG, Type 2 Diabetes

Date of Defense

10-3-2014

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among serum levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), dietary antioxidant intakes and glycemic control in African Americans (n=209) and Haitian Americans (n=234) with and without T2D.

African Americans had higher BMI (32.8 vs. 29.3 kg/m2), higher energy intake (2148 vs. 1770 kcal), and were more educated as compared to Haitian Americans; all variables were significant at p < .001. Serum levels of 8OHdG and MnSOD for African Americans (1691.0 ± 225.1 pg/ml, 2538.0 ± 1091.8 pg/ml; respectively) were significantly higher than for Haitian Americans (1626.2 ± 222.9, 2015.8 ± 656.3 pg/ml; respectively). 8OHdG was negatively correlated with MnSOD (r = -.167, p < .001) in T2D. Having T2D was negatively correlated with MnSOD (r = -.337; p < .01) and positively correlated with 8OHdG (r = .500; p < .01). African Americans and Haitian Americans with T2D had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of 143.0 ± 61.0 mg/dl and 157.6 ± 65.5 mg/dl, and A1C of 7.5 ± 1.8 % and 8.4 ± 2.4 %, respectively. African Americans and Haitian Americans without T2D had FPG levels of 95.8 ± 13.2 mg/dl and 98.7 ± 16.9 mg/dl, and A1C of 5.9 ± 0.4% and 6.0 ± 0.5%, respectively. Dietary intakes of vitamin C and vitamin D were negatively correlated with FPG (r = -.21; r = -.19, p < .05) respectively. Carotenoids negatively correlated with A1C (r = -.19, p < .05). Lower levels of MnSOD were associated with lower levels of zinc, r = .10, p < .05, and higher levels of carotenoids r = -.10, p < .05. Higher levels of 8OHdG were associated with lower levels of Vitamin D, r = -.14, p < .01, and carotenoids, r = -.09, p < .05.

The results demonstrate greater oxidative mtDNA damage in persons with T2D compared to those without T2D and in African Americans compared with Haitian Americans. The inverse relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants and oxidative stress implies a potential to reduce oxidative stress with diet.

African Americans were significantly younger (53.3 vs. 55.6 years), had higher BMI (32.8 vs. 29.3 kg/m2), higher energy intake (2148 vs. 1770 kcal), and were more educated as compared to Haitian Americans; all variables were significant at p < .001. Serum levels of 8OHdG and MnSOD for African Americans (1691.0 ± 225.1 pg/ml, 2538.0 ± 1091.8 pg/ml; respectively) were significantly higher than for Haitian Americans (1626.2 ± 222.9, 2015.8 ± 656.3 pg/ml; respectively). 8OHdG was negatively correlated with MnSOD (r = -.167, p < .001) in T2D. Having T2D was negatively correlated with MnSOD (r = -.337; p < .01) and positively correlated with 8OHdG (r = .500; p < .01). African Americans and Haitian Americans with T2D had fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of 143.0 ± 61.0 mg/dl and 157.6 ± 65.5 mg/dl, and A1C of 7.5 ± 1.8 % and 8.4 ± 2.4 %, respectively. African Americans and Haitian Americans without T2D had FPG levels of 95.8 ± 13.2 mg/dl and 98.7 ± 16.9 mg/dl, and A1C of 5.9 ± 0.4% and 6.0 ± 0.5%, respectively. Dietary intakes of vitamin C and vitamin D were negatively correlated with FPG (r = -.21; r = -.19, p < .05) respectively. Carotenoids negatively correlated with A1C (r = -.19, p < .05). Lower levels of MnSOD were associated with lower levels of zinc, r = .10, p < .05, and higher levels of carotenoids r = -.10, p < .05. Higher levels of 8OHdG were associated with lower levels of Vitamin D, r = -.14, p < .01, and carotenoids, r = -.09, p < .05.

The results demonstrate greater oxidative mtDNA damage in persons with T2D compared to those without T2D and in African Americans compared with Haitian Americans. The inverse relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants and oxidative stress implies a potential to reduce oxidative stress with diet.

Identifier

FI14110702

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