Developing of Germyldesulonylation and Thiodesulfonylation Reactions for the Synthesis of Novel Nucleoside Analogues. Efficient Synthesis of Novel (alpha-Fluoro)vinyl Sulfides
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase effects hydrolytic cleavage of AdoHcy to produce both adenosine and L-homocysteine and is a feedback inhibitor of S-adenosyl- L-methionine (SAM). Nucleoside analogues bearing an alkenyl or fluoroalkenyl chain between sulfur and C5' utilizing Negishi coupling reactions were synthesized. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling between the 5'-deoxy-5'-(iodomethylene) nucleosides and alkylzinc bromides gives analogues with the alkenyl unit. Palladium-catalyzed selective monoalkylation of 5'-(bromofluoromethylene)-5'-deoxy-adenosine with alkylzinc bromide afford adenosylhomocysteine analogues with a 6'-(fluoro)vinyl motif. The vinylic adenine nucleosides produced time-dependent inactivation of the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolases. ^ Stannydesulfonylation reaction is a critical step in the synthesis of E-fluorovinyl cytidine (Tezacitabine) a ribonucleoside reductase inhibitor with a potent anticancer activity. The synthesis involves the removal of the sulfonyl group by a radical-mediated stannyldesulfonylation reaction using tributyltin hydride. In order to eliminate the toxicity of tin, I developed a radical-mediated germyldesulonylation utilizing less toxic germane hydrides. Treatment of the protected (E)-5'-deoxy-5'-[(p-toluenesulfonyl)-methylene]uridine and adenosine derivatives with tributyl- or triphenylgermane hydride effected radical-mediated germyldesulfonylations to give 5'-(tributyl- or triphenylgermyl)methylene-5'-deoxynucleoside derivatives as single (E)-isomers. Analogous treatment of 2'-deoxy-2'-[(phenylsulfonyl)methylene]uridine with Ph3GeH afforded the corresponding vinyl triphenylgermane product. Stereoselective halodegermylation of the (E)-5'-(tributylgermyl)-methylene-5'-deoxy nucleosides with NIS or NBS provided the Wittig-type (E)-5'-deoxy-5'-(halomethylene) nucleosides quantitatively. ^ Radical-mediated thiodesulfonylation of the readily available vinyl and (α-fluoro) vinyl sulfones with aryl thiols in organic or aqueous medium to provide a bench and environmentally friendly protocol to access (α-fluoro)vinyl sulfides were developed. Methylation of the vinyl or (α-fluoro)vinyl phenyl sulfide gave access to the corresponding vinyl or (α-fluoro)vinyl sulfonium salts. These sulfonium ions were tested as possible methyl group donors during reactions with thiols, phenols or amino groups which are commonly present in natural amino acids. ^
Sacasa, Pablo R, "Developing of Germyldesulonylation and Thiodesulfonylation Reactions for the Synthesis of Novel Nucleoside Analogues. Efficient Synthesis of Novel (alpha-Fluoro)vinyl Sulfides" (2010). ProQuest ETD Collection for FIU. AAI3431326.