Syntheses of aza analogues of kainic acid
The kainate receptors are one of the three major groups of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. They are so named after their most potent agonist, kainic acid (KA), a natural product isolated from the seaweed Diginea simplex. This compound shows both neuroexcitatory and excitotoxic activities, and is an important pharmacological tool for neurophysiological studies. We predict that the more synthetically accessible aza analogues of kainic acid, could act as functional mimics of KA. These could be produced by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of diazoalkanes with trans glutaconate esters. ^ 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions have been shown to produce 1-pyrazolines that isomerize into 2-pyrazolines. The 1- and 2-pyrazolines can be precursors to aza analogs of kainoids. The regioselectivity, relative stereochemistry and isomerization of the 1-pyrazolines into 2-pyrazolines have been evaluated. Reductions of the 1- and 2-pyrazolines produced aza analogs of kainoids. TMS diazomethane was used as the dipole in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions leading to aza KA analogs via 2-pyrazolines. A systematic study of cycloaddition-isomerization processes involving TMS-diazomethane and various α, β-unsaturated dipolarophiles has been undertaken. 1H-NMR monitoring of the reaction mixture compositions during the cycloaddition reaction revealed evidence of retro-dipolar cycloaddition processes. Faster formation of 4,5- trans-1-pyrazoline at the beginning of the reaction and subsequent isomerization of this product into 4,5-cis-1-pyrazoline via a retro-dipolar cycloaddition has been observed. Increased reaction time and/or reaction temperature preferentially caused the irreversible isomerization of 4,5-cis-1-pyrazoline into 4,5-cis-2-pyrazoline, which led to high yields of 4,5-cis-2-pyrazolines in the overall process. ^ Two syntheses of the 5-unsubstituted aza-kainic acid have been performed; first, via the reduction of the TMS-eliminated 2-pyrazoline from TMS diazomethane; second by the direct reduction of 1-pyrazoline with Hg/Al-amalgam. 5-Phenyl aza-kainic acid has been produced by direct reduction of 1-pyrazoline, obtained in the reaction of phenyldiazomethane and dibenzyl glutaconate, with Hg/Al-amalgam. ^ Current responses to aza kainate analogs in Aplysia whole cell buccal ganglia indicate potent neuroexcitatory activity. The repetitive exposure of neuronal cells to the 5-unsubstituted aza-kainic acid led to non-desensitizing current responses, showing both binding affinity and neuronal ion-channel activation by the synthesized agonist compound. ^
Simovic, Dragan, "Syntheses of aza analogues of kainic acid" (2008). ProQuest ETD Collection for FIU. AAI3382496.