Application and evaluation of an Institute of Medicine approach to dietary assessment and planning in long -term care

Melissa Ventura-Marra, Florida International University


The primary purpose of these studies was to determine the effect of planning menus using the Institute of Medicine's (IOMs) Simple Nutrient Density Approach on nutrient intakes of long-term care (LTC) residents. In the first study, nutrient intakes of 72 subjects were assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and IOM methodology. The intake distributions were used to set intake and menu planning goals. In the second study, the facility's regular menus were modified to meet the intake goals for vitamin E, magnesium, zinc, vitamin D and calcium. An experiment was used to test whether the modified menu resulted in intakes of micronutrients sufficient to achieve a low prevalence (<3%) of nutrient inadequacies. Three-day weighed food intakes for 35 females were adjusted for day-to-day variations in order to obtain an estimate of long-term average intake and to estimate the proportion of residents with inadequate nutrient intakes. ^ In the first study, the prevalence of inadequate intakes was determined to be between 65-99% for magnesium, vitamin E, and zinc. Mean usual intakes of Vitamin D and calcium were far below the Adequate Intakes (AIs). In the experimental study, the prevalence of inadequacies was reduced to <3% for zinc and vitamin E but not magnesium. The groups' mean usual intake from the modified menu met or exceeded the AI for calcium but fell short for vitamin D. Alternatively, it was determined that addition of a multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplement to intakes of the regular menu could be used to achieve goals for vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D but not calcium and magnesium. ^ A combination of menu modification and MVM supplementation may be necessary to achieve a low prevalence of micronutrient inadequacies among LTC residents. Menus should be planned to optimize intakes of those nutrients that are low in an MVM, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium. A MVM supplement should be provided to fill the gap for nutrients not provided in sufficient amounts by the diet, such as vitamin E and vitamin D. ^

Subject Area

Health Sciences, Nutrition

Recommended Citation

Ventura-Marra, Melissa, "Application and evaluation of an Institute of Medicine approach to dietary assessment and planning in long -term care" (2006). ProQuest ETD Collection for FIU. AAI3249721.