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Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT) compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patientspecific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.


Originally published in Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy.

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