Date of this Version

4-23-2015

Document Type

Article

Abstract

Introduction

p53 plays important roles in regulating the metabolic reprogramming of cancer, such as aerobic glycolysis. Oroxylin A is a natural active flavonoid with strong anticancer effects both in vitro and in vivo.

Methods

wt-p53 (MCF-7 and HCT116 cells) cancer cells and p53-null H1299 cancer cells were used. The glucose uptake and lactate production were analyzed using Lactic Acid production Detection kit and the Amplex Red Glucose Assay Kit. Then, the protein levels and RNA levels of p53, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), and p53-targeted glycolytic enzymes were quantified using Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Immunoprecipitation were performed to assess the binding between p53, MDM2, and sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), and the deacetylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Reporter assays were performed to assess the transcriptional activity of PTEN. In vivo, effects of oroxylin A was investigated in nude mice xenograft tumor-inoculated MCF-7 or HCT116 cells.

Results

Here, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms that oroxylin A regulated p53 level and glycolytic metabolism in wt-p53 cancer cells, and found that oroxylin A inhibited glycolysis through upregulating p53 level. Oroxylin A did not directly affect the transcription of wt-p53, but suppressed the MDM2-mediated degradation of p53 via downregulating MDM2 transcription in wt-p53 cancer cells. In further studies, we found that oroxylin A induced a reduction in MDM2 transcription by promoting the lipid phosphatase activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog, which was upregulated via sirtuin3-mediated deacetylation. In vivo, oroxylin A inhibited the tumor growth of nude mice-inoculated MCF-7 or HCT116 cells. The expression of MDM2 protein in tumor tissue was downregulated by oroxylin A as well.

Conclusions

These results provide a p53-independent mechanism of MDM2 transcription and reveal the potential of oroxylin A on glycolytic regulation in both wt-p53 and mut-p53 cancer cells. The studies have important implications for the investigation on anticancer effects of oroxylin A, and provide the academic basis for the clinical trial of oroxylin A in cancer patients.

Comments

© 2015 Zhao et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

DOI: 10.1186/s13045-015-0137-1

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