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In this study, an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) roughness analysis was performed on non-commercial Nitinol alloys with Electropolished (EP) and Magneto-Electropolished (MEP) surface treatments and commercially available stents by measuring Root-Mean-Square (RMS) , Average Roughness (Ra), and Surface Area (SA) values at various dimensional areas on the alloy surfaces, ranging from (800 x 800 nm) to (115 x 115µm), and (800 x 800 nm) to (40 x 40 µm) on the commercial stents. Results showed that NiTi-Ta 10 wt% with an EP surface treatment yielded the highest overall roughness, while the NiTi-Cu 10 wt% alloy had the lowest roughness when analyzed over (115 x 115 µm). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed unique surface morphologies for surface treated alloys, as well as an aggregation of ternary elements Cr and Cu at grain boundaries in MEP and EP surface treated alloys, and non-surface treated alloys. Such surface micro-patterning on ternary Nitinol alloys could increase cellular adhesion and accelerate surface endothelialization of endovascular stents, thus reducing the likelihood of in-stent restenosis and provide insight into hemodynamic flow regimes and the corrosion behavior of an implantable device influenced from such surface micro-patterns.
Persaud, Dharam; Munroe, Norman; and McGoron, Anthony, "Electro and Magneto-Electropolished Surface Micro-Patterning on Binary and Ternary Nitinol" (2012). Department of Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications. Paper 1.